Manuscripts submitted to eSocialSciences and Humanities (eSSH) must conform to the current edition of the American Psychological Association (APA) Manual.
British spellings should be used throughout; universal ‘z’ in ‘-ize’ and ‘-ization’ words.
Reference citations in text
The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text. To refer to an item in the list of references included in the text, author-date method should be used. That is, give the surname of the author (without suffixes) and the year of the publication in the text at appropriate points. When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page number as well (p. if one page is cited or pp. if more than one page). In case the year of publication is not available mention n.d.
The normative acceptability of democracy has grown faster than its actual practice ( Sen, 1999, p.3).
Sen (1999) stated that the normative acceptability of democracy has grown faster than its actual practice (p. 3).
If the work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs. For works more than two authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. In subsequent citations, include only the last name of the first author followed by et al.
We agree that “… passive citizens who prefer the joy of family and career to the duties of politics are not necessarily misguided” (Kymlicka & Norman, 2000, p. 222).
Kymlicka & Norman (2000) argue that “… passive citizens who prefer the joy of family and career to the duties of politics are not necessarily misguided” (p. 222).
In case of 3 to 5 authors mention all authors first time and subsequently mention the first author and add et.al.
In case of 6 or more authors mention the first author surname and et.al, year
Easy global travel and the explosive growth of the World Wide Web, coupled with increasingly powerful search engines, now expose formerly inaccessible knowledge to the glare of the global media and market. (Kansa & et.al., 2005, p.4).
Citations of two or more works in the same parentheses should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically, then chronologically)
When a work has no authors, cite in text the first few words of what appears first for the entry on the list (usually the title) and the year (“New Student Center,” 2002).
Citation of a work discussed in a secondary source
To cite secondary sources, refer to both sources in the text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used. For example, suppose you read Brush (1996) and would like to paraphrase or quote a sentence by Arrow the in-text citation would be:
As Arrow observes, “Any one purchaser can destroy the monopoly, since he can reproduce the information at little or no costs.” ( As cited in Brush, 1996,
p. 151.) Brush would be fully referenced within the list of References.
Citations of court cases
To cite the reference in text, give the case name, in italics, and the year.
Specifically, the Court agreed in that the government “… being duty bound to protect the people, has to prevent unlawful activities like Bundh, Rally etc. which invade or threaten to invade their life, liberty, and property” (Ranchi Bar Association v State of Bihar, 1999).
Citing Long Quotations (40 or more words)
Use a block format in which all lines of the quotation are indented approximately ½ inch from the margin.
Do not use quotation marks.
Introduce the quotation with a complete sentence and a colon.
The outcome of surveillance is that governments, multinational corporations, or politicians do not have to exert force in order to control. All they have to do is instill the fear of observation. The new form of control:
All they have to do is instill the fear of observation. The new form of control:…leaves the body free and directs its attack at the soul. The ruler no longer says: You must think as I do or die. He says: You are free not to think as I do; your life, your property, everything shall remain yours, but from this day on you are a stranger among us. Not to conform means to be rendered powerless, economically and therefore, spiritually to be self employed (Adorno and Horkheimer, 1998, p. 133).
Personal communications may be things such as email messages, interviews, speeches, and telephone conversations. Because the information is not retrievable they should not appear in the reference list. They should look as follows: A.B. (personal communication, September 20, 2008) indicated that
.… or In a recent interview (A.B., personal communication, September 20, 2008) I learned that ….
All non-English terms/phrases must be in italics and an approximate English translation must be given in parentheses (if the explanation is short) or in an endnote (if it is long).
The term/phrases will continue to be in italics without the translation for all subsequent appearances.
And others et al. (et alii)
Used where there are too many authors to list
Ibid., id., and op.cit. are not used in APA Style. In-text citations in APA Style are followed by parentheses containing the author and year of the source.
References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Include only the sources cited in your paper. Organise the list in alphabetical order according to the first letter beginning each entry. Usually, the author’s last name is the first piece of information in each entry. Use initials for the
author’s first/middle names. References should contain only sources cited in the text. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text.
In references, sentence case (only the first word and any proper noun are capitalized – e.g., ‘The software industry in India’) is to be followed for the titles of papers, books, articles, etc.
In references, Journal titles are put in title case (first letter of all words except articles and conjunctions are capitalized – e.g., Journal of Business Ethics).
Journals, Magazines, Newspapers
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Vol(No), page range. doi no (if there)
Italicize the journal name and volume number but not the issue number. However, articles may not have an issue number; in that case, omit it.
Abbott, F. M. (2002). The TRIPS agreement, access to medicines, and the WTO Doha Ministerial Conference. The Journal of World Intellectual Property, 5(1), 15-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-1796.2002.tb00147.x
More than one authors
Kansa, E. C., Schultz, J., & Bissell, A. N. (2005). Protecting traditional knowledge and expanding access to scientific data, International Journal of Cultural Property, 12(3), 285-314. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0940739105050204
Truscello, M. (2003). The architecture of information: open source software and tactical poststructuralist anarchism, Postmodern Culture, 13(3). Retrieved December 24, 2016, from http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/pmc/issue.503/13.3truscello.html
Article in an Internet-only Journal
O’Hallarn, B. (2016, May). The public sphere and social capital: unlikely allies in social media interactions?. First Monday, 21(10). Retrieved March 18, 2005 from http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/6961/5645. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i10.6961,
Books, Chapters in Books, Reports
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Fukuyama, F. (1992). The end of history and the last man. London: Hamish Hamilton.
Miliband, R. (1969). The state in capitalist society. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Rule: a capital letter for the abbreviation for editor or editors i.e. Ed. or Eds.
Use lower case for edition i.e. 2nd edn.
A work with a foreign title
Weiner, M. (Ed.)(1993). International migration and security. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Spyridakis, A. (1987). E historia tis Helladas [A history of Greece]. Athens: Therios ita Iona.
Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: sovereign power and bare life. (trans. D Heller-Roazen). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Chapter in a Book
Ryan, M. P. (1992). Gender and public access: women’s politics in nineteenth-century America. In Craig Calhoun (Ed.), Habermas and the public pphere, (pp. 259-286). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.),Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327). New York, NY: Wiley
Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise start with the Government, ministry, committee, agency or any subdivision that served as the author, followed by the date, title, place, and publisher. For parliament or assembly documents, try to include the relevant session.
Government Acts/ Bills
When referring to a government publication, the date is sufficient for in text referencing
The Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the Republic of South African. (1996). Government Gazette. (No. 17678).
Government of India, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals. (2001). Transforming India Into a knowledge power: Report of the pharmaceutical research and Development committee, New Delhi: Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers.
Here are the three basic elements for an APA Style reference for most court decisions:
- Name of the case: Name v. Name
- Source reporting the decision: Volume Source Page
- Court and date of the decision: (Court Date)
Bachan Singh v. State of Punjab, 2 SCJ 474 (1980); AIR 1980 SC 898; AIR 1982 SC 1325; 1 SCR 145 (1983).
Bariyar v. State of Maharashtra, 6 S.C.C. 498 (2009).
Citations of electronic sources should include an author or editor, the title of the text, date, the title of the website, date of retrieving the electronic address.
Online Newspaper Articles:
Include the year, month, and date for periodicals.
Rukmini, S. (2014, May 18). 16th Lok Sabha will be richest, have most MPs with criminal charges.
The Hindu. Retrieved December 24, 2016, from http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/16th-loksabha-will-be-richest-have-most-mps-with-criminal-charges/article6022513.ece
Heath, A. (2010). A critical reading of E.H. Carr. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Politics, Newcastle University.
Unpublished paper presented at a Meeting/Conference/Seminar
Balasubramaniam, K. (2001, March 21). Access to medicines: Patents, Prices and public policy – consumer perspectives. Paper presented at Oxfam International Seminar on Intellectual property and development: what future for the WTO TRIPS Agreement?, Brussels, Belgium.
BarackObama. (2009, July 15). Launched American graduation initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [twitter post]. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
Sandel, M. (2009, September 4). Justice: what's the right thing To do? Episode 01 [Video file]. Retrieved October 8, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kBdfcR-8hEY&list=PL30C13C91CFFEFEA6&index=1